SQL Server CREATE TABLE and Declarative Integrity Constraints

By Dusan Petkovic on September 6, 2013

One of the most important features that a DBMS must provide is a way of maintaining the integrity of data. The constraints, which are used to check the modification or insertion of data, are called integrity constraints. The task of maintaining integrity constraints can be handled by the user in application programs or by the DBMS. The most important benefits of handling integrity constraints by the DBMS are the following:

  • Increased reliability of data
  • Reduced programming time
  • Simple maintenance

Using the DBMS to define integrity constraints increases the reliability of data because there is no possibility that the integrity constraints can be forgotten by a programmer. (If an integrity constraint is handled by application programs, all programs concerning the constraint must include the corresponding code. If the code is omitted in one application program, the consistency of data is compromised.)

An integrity constraint not handled by the DBMS must be defined in every application program that uses the data involved in the constraint. In contrast, the same integrity constraint must be defined only once if it is to be handled by the DBMS. Additionally, application-enforced constraints are usually more complex to code than are database-enforced constraints.

If an integrity constraint is handled by the DBMS, the modification of the structure of the constraint must be handled only once, in the DBMS. The modification of a structure in application programs requires the modification of every program that involves the corresponding code.

There are two groups of integrity constraints handled by a DBMS:

  • Declarative integrity constraints
  • Procedural integrity constraints that are handled by triggers (for the definition of triggers, see Chapter 13)

The declarative constraints are defined using the DDL statements CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE. They can be column-level constraints or table-level constraints. Column-level constraints, together with the data type and other column properties, are placed within the declaration of the column, while table-level constraints are always defined at the end of the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement, after the definition of all columns.


There is only one difference between column-level constraints and table-level constraints: a column-level constraint can be applied only upon one column, while a table-level constraint can cover one or more columns of a table.

Each declarative constraint has a name. The name of the constraint can be explicitly assigned using the CONSTRAINT option in the CREATE TABLE statement or the ALTER TABLE statement. If the CONSTRAINT option is omitted, the Database Engine assigns an implicit name for the constraint.


Using explicit constraint names is strongly recommended. The search for an integrity constraint can be greatly enhanced if an explicit name for a constraint is used.

All declarative constraints can be categorized into several groups:

  • DEFAULT clause
  • UNIQUE clause
  • PRIMARY KEY clause
  • CHECK clause
  • FOREIGN KEY clause and referential integrity



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