As database administrators and developers, we need to know how to tune SQL queries and databases. Tuning SQL queries and databases is one of the most powerful tools in our arsenal for achieving the best possible performance results.
This post will help you understand more about SQL tuning. I’ll start by explaining what SQL performance tuning is. Then, I’ll go over how to conduct SQL performance tuning in MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle. Last, I’ll summarize the benefits of SQL performance tuning.
What Is SQL Performance Tuning?
SQL performance tuning, or performance tuning, is checking and resolving issues potentially affecting the efficiency of a SQL database. The key to good performance is ensuring queries execute quickly with minimal resources.
Using external tools is one way to get started with SQL performance tuning. Take SolarWinds SQL Sentry® and SolarWinds Database Performance Analyzer (DPA) as examples. These platforms give you a deeper understanding of queries and performance and allow you to tune databases more effectively. But there are other measures you can take.
The first step in tuning queries for performance is knowing which metrics to measure so you can optimize performance. There are three key metrics: CPU utilization, disk I/O, and memory utilization. You should monitor queries whenever you have a spike in CPU usage or disk I/O latency.
The other part of the tuning process is identifying which queries are candidates for tuning, whether they’re causing high CPU utilization, high disk I/O, or a high memory load. Once you’ve identified the query candidate, there are general rules you can follow to tune a query. These rules will vary depending on if you’re using MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, or Oracle.
MySQL Performance Tuning
To get started with tuning MySQL, here’s a breakdown of some essential components.
The query analyzer tool can help you analyze and improve the performance of your MySQL queries. It can detect slow-running and long-running queries and suggest ways to improve the efficiency of your database server. In addition, it can help you understand how query patterns change your database’s overall performance. This is a great tool for tuning MySQL, as it can fix potential bottlenecks.
InnoDB over MyISAM
Unlike MyISAM, InnoDB uses row-level locking, so only the changed rows are locked while the rest of the table is kept intact. This eliminates the possibility of increased contention and performance issues in high-traffic environments.
In addition, InnoDB can recover data in the event of a crash and uses write-ahead logging to ensure the data is intact. MyISAM also doesn’t support transactions, making it more prone to data loss during multiple write operations.
With the support for foreign key constraints, InnoDB can help maintain the consistency of your data across tables.
Thread Pool Tuning
Thread pool tuning is the ability to increase the number of concurrent requests the database can handle. This can help prevent the database from getting overwhelmed by the increased load. Adjusting the thread pool’s settings can also help prevent the database from experiencing performance issues.
It can also help keep the resources of the server running more efficiently.
Optimize Your SQL Statements
Optimizing your SQL statements allows queries to be executed more quickly and use fewer resources. Let’s see an example in action.
Below is a SQL statement optimized by using the DISTINCT keyword to reduce the number of rows returned and the INNER JOIN keyword to reduce the number of rows needing to be searched. The INNER JOIN keyword reduces the number of tables needing to be searched by eliminating rows without matching IDs in both tables. For example, if table a has an id 30 and this ID isn’t found in table b and vice versa, INNER JOIN will exclude the row. We use INNER JOIN in place of LEFT/RIGHT JOIN, as it doesn’t return null values. The WHERE clause filters the results further, returning only the rows meeting the set criteria.
Microsoft SQL Server Performance Tuning
To get started with tuning Microsoft SQL Server, here’s a breakdown of some of the essential components.
Performance monitoring is a crucial step when troubleshooting performance issues with queries. It enables you to identify which queries are taking too long, allowing you to focus your efforts on optimizing them. In addition, it allows you to identify problems related to I/O (e.g., insufficient disk space).
The performance monitor can help identify issues such as slow queries and unoptimized indexes. It can also provide detailed information about the performance of the database system, such as the time it takes to execute each query, the number of disks and amount of memory used, and the number of locks.
The SQL Server Profiler is an easy-to-use tool designed to help monitor the performance of Microsoft SQL Server. It can collect various data points about the system’s operations, such as the number of queries being executed, the time it takes to execute each query, and the resources used to perform it. You can use this information to identify areas where you can improve the system.
Understanding the resources allocated to a particular query can help identify areas where the system can improve performance.
The query optimizer takes a query and analyzes the query and the underlying data to determine the most efficient way to execute it. This involves selecting the best indexing strategy, determining the most efficient join order, and other optimizations. The query optimizer then generates an execution plan for the query, which contains a detailed set of steps the query will take to retrieve the requested data.
Database Engine Tuning Advisor
The Database Engine Tuning Advisor (DTA) is a tool designed to help Microsoft SQL Server users improve the performance of their databases. It can help them create or drop indexes, identify which types of data are used in their indexes, and suggest ways to improve the stored procedures and tables.
Aside from creating or dropping indexes, the DTA can help users implement changes to their databases’ stored procedures and tables.
Oracle SQL Performance Tuning
To get started with tuning Oracle, you can take advantage of the provided automatic tuning features. Let’s look at each one.
Automatic Workload Repository
Oracle’s Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) can help with performance tuning. AWR stores data as snapshot reports, identifying patterns and trends capable of helping you detect potential issues. The repository can also monitor the performance of various queries or groups. Additionally, it can generate reports and alarms about issues.
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
The ability to identify and analyze performance bottlenecks is a key component of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM). It can then recommend the appropriate fixes and help improve the performance of your applications and databases. With the help of the Add-On Performance Monitor, database administrators can reduce the complexity of performing manual tuning.
The Add-On Performance Monitor can provide detailed information about performance issues, such as wait events, index statements, and SQL statements. It can also recommend actions capable of improving the performance of your databases.
SQL Tuning Advisor
The SQL Tuning Advisor evaluates a statement in the library cache or a statement submitted directly and generates recommendations capable of improving its performance. These changes can include the addition or modification of database objects.
The SQL Tuning Advisor can also use the AWR to review recent workloads, generate recommendations, and improve the entire system’s performance.
What Are the Benefits of SQL Performance Tuning?
Now that we’ve covered some basic ways to tune your SQL queries and databases, let’s recap why SQL performance tuning matters.
- By tuning your SQL queries, you can also improve the accuracy and reliability of the data stored in the database. This can help prevent errors and improve the data integrity of the database.
- Properly tuning your SQL queries can improve their performance and reduce the time it takes to retrieve data. This can help speed up decision-making and enable faster response times.
- Optimizing database performance and server resource utilization can help you save money by rightsizing your on-premises and cloud database server infrastructure.
- Reduce the server load by tuning SQL queries. This can help improve performance and scalability when the workload increases.
- By tuning your SQL queries, you can improve the amount of data stored and retrieved in the database. This can help decrease the amount of disk space used and improve the overall performance of the database.
- One of the biggest advantages of tuning your SQL queries is it can reduce the time to develop them. This can free up valuable resources for other tasks.
- SQL performance tuning can help improve user experience by reducing the amount of time it takes for a database to return results to a query. This can be especially important for web applications, where fast load times are crucial for providing a good user experience. Further, an increase in load time will improve the web app’s search engine ranking, improving the SEO indexing.
SQL performance tuning is essential to refining your database queries for optimal speed and performance. By taking the time to analyze the database schema, query plans, resource and index utilization, and other factors, you can identify opportunities to make improvements and help ensure optimal performance. By closely monitoring database performance, you can quickly identify and address issues and maintain or improve the performance of your database.
SolarWinds DPA is the perfect complement to the SQL Sentry dashboard, offering tools such as a query optimization wizard, advanced highlighting of slow-running queries, and CPU utilization monitoring to help fully optimize your databases.