This article describes the most important items that you should consider from a hardware perspective when you are trying to increase the basic resiliency and availability of an individual SQL Server database server. These are some of the first steps you would take as part of designing a high-availability solution for your data tier. The basic goal here is to eliminate as many single points of failure as possible at the hardware and configuration level. Therefore, when choosing components for a database server and including them as part of the server configuration (as opposed to a web server, for example), you should consider these aspects regardless of any other high-availability techniques you decide to use.
You should always get two internal drives in a RAID 1 (mirrored) configuration for the operating system and the SQL Server binaries. These drives should be using the integrated hardware RAID controller that is available on most new rack-mounted servers. Using an integrated hardware RAID controller (which usually has a 256MB–512MB cache) provides better performance than using software RAID through Windows. Having two drives in RAID 1 offers a basic level of redundancy for the operating system and the SQL Server binaries, so the server will not stop functioning if one of the drives fails.
Try to get at least 146GB, 15K 2.5?? drives for this purpose. Using 15K drives helps Windows Server boot a little faster, and it will help SQL Server load a bit faster when the service first starts up. Using 146GB (or larger) drives provides more room to accommodate things like the Windows page file, SQL Server Error Log files, dump files, and so on, without being worried about drive space. As SSD prices continue to fall, you might want to consider using two SSDs for your mirrored boot drive. Reducing your boot time and reducing the time it takes for SQL Server to start up using SSDs could help you meet your recovery time objective (RTO) goals.
Ensure that you have dual power supplies for the database server, each plugged into separate circuits in your server room or data center. You should also be plugged into an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) on each circuit, and ideally have a backup power source, such as a diesel generator for your data center. The idea here is to protect against an internal power supply failure, a cord being kicked out of an electrical socket, a circuit breaker tripping, or loss of electrical power from the utility grid. Adding a second power supply is relatively inexpensive insurance, typically less than $300. Despite this, we have seen many battles with economizing bosses about this item over the years. Power supplies do fail, cords are accidentally unplugged, and circuit breakers do get tripped. Therefore, stick to your guns about dual power supplies for a database server. You should have multiple network ports in the server, with Ethernet connections into at least two different network switches. These network switches (which should also have dual power supplies) should be plugged into different electrical circuits in your data center. Most new rack-mounted servers have at least four gigabit Ethernet ports embedded on the motherboard. All of this is designed to prevent an outage caused by the loss of a single network port or a single network switch.
You should have multiple RAID controller cards (if you are using direct-attached or internal storage); multiple host bus adapters (HBAs) (if you are using a Fibre Channel SAN); or multiple PCIe Gigabit, or better Ethernet cards with an iSCSI SAN. This will give you better redundancy and better throughput, depending on your configuration. Again, the idea here is to try to avoid an outage caused by the loss of a single component.
Wherever your SQL Server data files, log files, tempdb files, and SQL Server backup files are located, they should be protected by an appropriate RAID level, depending on your budget and performance needs. You want to prevent your databases from going down due to the loss of a single drive. Keep in mind that RAID is not a substitute for an appropriate SQL Server backup and restore strategy! Never let anyone, whether it is a SAN vendor, a server administrator from your operations team, or your boss, talk you into not doing SQL Server backups as appropriate for your recovery point objective (RPO) and recovery time objective (RTO) requirements. This cannot be emphasized enough! There is absolutely no substitute for having SQL Server backup files, although you will undoubtedly be pressured throughout your career, by different people, into not running SQL Server database backups. Stand your ground. The old saying is true: “If you don’t have backups, you don’t have a database.”
To reduce the boot and SQL Server startup time on your database servers, note the following BIOS configuration setting. For a standalone database server, reducing your total reboot time has a direct effect on your high-availability numbers. Therefore, go into the BIOS setup for the server and disable the memory testing that normally occurs during the POST sequence, which shaves a significant amount of time off of it (often many minutes, depending on how much RAM is installed), so the server will boot faster. This carries little risk, as this testing only occurs during the POST sequence; it has nothing to do with detecting a memory problem while the server is running later, which is the job of your hardware or system-monitoring software.
While you are in the BIOS setup, also access the Power Management section and either disable the power management settings or set them to OS control. By default, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 use the Windows Balanced Power Plan. This saves electrical power usage by reducing the multiplier setting for the processors, which reduces their clock speed when the system is not under a heavy load. This sounds like a good idea, but it can actually have a very significant negative effect on performance, as some processors do not react quickly enough to an increase in workload. This is particularly important if you have an Intel Nehalem or Westmere family processor. The latest Intel Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge family processors react to power state changes much more quickly than Nehalem or Westmere did, which makes them much less sensitive to those changes from a performance perspective.
Regardless of what processor you have, power management can have other negative effects on your database server. One example is when you are using Fusion-io cards in your server. Some forms of hardware management can affect the PCIe slots in the server, so Fusion-io specifically recommends that you disable power management settings in your main BIOS setup and in Windows. The easy solution to all of this is to ensure that you are using the High Performance Windows Power Plan, and that you disable the power management settings in your BIOS.
Finally, after ensuring that you have followed all the guidelines described thus far, you still are not done. Depending on your RPO and RTO requirements, you should be planning and hopefully implementing some sort of overall high-availability and disaster-recovery (HA/DR) strategy to provide you with an even more robust system that will be able to handle as many different types of issues and “disasters” as possible. This strategy could include technologies such as Windows failover clustering, database mirroring, log shipping, transactional replication, and SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOn Availability Groups, along with an actual plan that outlines the policies and procedures needed to successfully handle a disaster.